Leaders and Managers

Managers and the types of employees they manage

Some leadership researchers have thoroughly studied ancient cultures to determine how leaders lived and ruled in ancient times. Others navigated the turbulent waters of history, in search of lost ideas and ideals of leadership. Still, others have sifted the sands of individual leaders’ lives, seeking biographical shards that might offer clues to this elusive phenomenon. During all these arduous, centuries-long searches for leaders, followers appeared only infrequently. Oddly enough, despite a significant literature on social movements directly concerned with followers’ behavior, linkages to the field of leadership are sparse. Even the social psychological experiments on conformity played a minor role in leadership theory. It took sociologist Max Weber to nudge the exploration of leadership toward a consideration of followers and their perceptions. His discussion of charismatic leadership that “compelled” the awe of followers would lay some early groundwork on which leadership theorists could build. In fact, James MacGregor Burns’s seminal distinction between transactional and transformational leaders did exactly that, highlighting the difference in followers’ behavior with the two kinds of leaders. (Riggio, Chaleff & Blumen 2008)  

Larger than life leaders

Yet, a full decade later, Robert E. Kelley’s Harvard Business Review article constituted a sharp rap on the knuckles of the field of leadership for neglecting followers. With some notable exceptions, most subsequent scholars continued to focus on what James Meindl and colleagues labeled the “romance of leadership,” attributing most group and contextual effects— both good and bad— to larger-than-life leaders. Despite the widespread consensus that one must have followers to warrant the label of leader, the spotlight has remained tightly centered on leaders. This distorting and overly positive bias toward leaders predisposed the field to concentrate on what these impressive figures did to followers, not vice versa. Followers were simply noted in passing, those objects on whom leaders foisted their decisions and actions. (Riggio, Chaleff & Blumen 2008) Even those scholars who escaped the adorational chains of most leadership research emphasized primarily the leaders’—not the followers’—negative qualities and actions. Kelley’s plea notwithstanding, only infrequently did leadership researchers recognize followers as active, thinking, and perceiving individuals. Aside from Burns and later Bass, and an occasional less well-known study, few scholars emphasized the interaction between leaders and followers. Moreover, most failed to explore the inaction of followers in the face of destructive leaders. Even those who considered leadership as a process or relationship treated followers mostly by implication. But the winds of change are gradually rising. Followers, by their actions, are calling attention to themselves— in massive political uprisings in diverse societies, and in incidents of individual whistle-blowing within organizations of all descriptions. Given the increasingly compelling actions of real-life followers vis-à-vis their leaders, perhaps it was inevitable that the leadership spotlight would broaden to include them. Here and there within the field of leadership, scholars and practitioners are starting to acknowledge the significance of followers. Followers with moral courage sometimes in the guise of whistle-blowers, sometimes in less dramatic dress, have entered center stage. A few scholars have begun to raise questions about the impact of bad leaders on their followers and to explore why followers only rarely resist toxic leaders. Gradually, a more follower-centric leadership model - learn more here, inspired by Meindl and his colleagues’ insight, is emerging. (Riggio, Chaleff & Blumen 2008)  

Types of employees

There are five basic types of employees for every leader:  

The Sheep

The sheep are passive and look to the leader to do the thinking for them and to motivate them. If you are the type of manager whose employees are always just following and relying on you to set the direction, make decisions and set the tone.  

The Yes-people

The yes-people are always saying yes to everything. They are positive and constantly agree with managers and management. If they are asked to do something, they will always say yes and once finished, they will go back to the manager asking what next?  

The Isolated

The isolated think for themselves but have a lot of negative energy. Every time an idea is presented, the isolated are the ones who have a hundred reasons why it is a bad idea. They see themselves as someone who has the courage to question and confront. They are not willing to come up with a solution but are very pessimistic about the current plan of action. They are smart and are highly critical but refuse to move in a positive direction.  

The Sensibles

The sensibles are those that sit on the fence and see which way the wind blows. Once they see which direction it is headed in, they will jump on the popular opinion side. They are never the first on board and they see themselves are preservers of the status quo. They are those who do what they must to survive for a sense of security.  

The Stars

The stars have a mind of their own. They do not simply accept a leader’s decision without evaluating its trustworthiness. If they believe it is the right thing to do and the right direction to take, they will give their full support. If they do not agree with the idea or the direction, they question the leader and provide ideas of their own. They themselves are leaders in their own right and they do not blindly follow anyone.  

By user23395, ago

Comparative Analysis – Project management  

Comparative Analysis - Project management

A detailed report of the planning stage of the project including a list of completed planned activities, what was considered, monitored and controlled in this stage. learn on to become a project manager by enrolling in a Diploma of Project Management class details about class here. You can also study Project management a university as well, which is available online and on Melbourne Campus. Due to the challenges faced by Adani Mining due to the legal challenges, political environment, environmental breaches and the inability to secure outside funding for its Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project, the only planned activities which the project has been able to achieve is the securing of the mine approval (Environmental Law Australia, para. 7), and a water licence with an approval to take up to 12.5 billion litres of water each year from the Suttor River (McKenna 2018, para. 4). Its goal to commence an initial output of two million tonnes of coal per annum in 2014 (Adani Mining 2010, p. 5) was not realized due to these setbacks. The project, which was meant to have been Australia’s largest, has been heavily scaled-back and is now only estimated to require a capital of $2 billion and not $16.5 billion, and the number of jobs it will provide for is only anticipated at 1,500 jobs and not the 10,000 jobs it previously promised (Hasham 2018, para. 1-10). There were many factors considered in the planning process of the Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project. The location of the mine, including the estimated coal reserves and outputs; the contribution the mine would make to the economy; the buyers of the resource and how in-demand the mined coal would be for the Indian market; the rail and port capacity and options, including whether the rail and port are able to handle Adani Mining’s operations or whether new tracks will need to be built to cater for this added load; the extraction and processing processes of the coal; the power, fuel and water resources and supplies required to operate the mine; the required infrastructure, including the infrastructure surrounding the mine; the environmental impacts, including the effects the mine and its operations will have on climate change, air quality, greenhouse gas emissions, noise, native flora and animals, and waste; the nature conservation of the local ecological communities, regional ecosystems and protected areas; hazard, risk and health and safety issues; the relevant legislation; and the wider community and all stakeholders were all of the factors that were considered in the planning stage (Adani Mining 2010, pp. 2-43 & Adani Mining 2014, pp. E-iii-E-x). According to the Initial Advice Statement published by Adani Mining on the Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project, Adani Mining monitored the community and stakeholder consultation process and feedback in an attempt to reach the desired outcome for the project, the various permit application processes to ensure the requirements are met and responded to in a timely manner, monitor their compliance with the various laws (Adani Mining 2010, p. 35-43), and the environmental impacts to measure and be able to properly inform a project environmental management system and plan as per the Environmental Impact Statement published (Adani Mining 2014, pp. E-i-E-xxiv). During the planning process, Adani Mining tried their best to control factors such as stakeholder consultation processes, the proposed project railway corridor alternatives and the negotiations with Hancock Prospecting and Queensland Rail (QR) for access to the Alpha Railway and Goonyella railway system (Adani Mining 2010, pp. 6-7 & 43). The planning process saw Adani Mining work with the Queensland State and Federal governments, work with various banks around the world to endeavour to secure funding for the project, Alpha Railway and Hancock Prospecting Pty Ltd for matters relating to their use of the railway infrastructure and options, Power link and Ergon regarding their power and fuel supply, as well as Isaac Regional Council, Mackay Regional Council and Whitsunday Regional Council for the mining lease (Adani Mining 2010, pp. 2-10). What information and data, if any, were ignored during the planning stage? (your perceptions) From my analysis of the information available about the Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project, there is no veritable third-party evidence, which I have been able to source which proves that Adani Mining Pty Ltd has truly attempted to engage and consult with the Wangan and Jagalingou people adequately and in good faith during the planning stage. The Initial Advice Statement published by Adani Mining on the Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project outlines that Adani Mining will consult with cultural heritage groups and the surrounding communities regarding the project to build community support and understanding as well as raise awareness about the project and establish an open line of communication with all stakeholders (Adani Mining 2010, p. 43). However, many of the Traditional Owners of the Wangan and Jagalingou country have contested that Adani Mining had not attempted to engage them in good faith during the consultation process, even though Adani Mining has managed to obtain the consent of the Wangan and Jagalingou people in an Indigenous Land Use Agreement signed in April 2016 (Arnautovic 2017, p. 3). They have proclaimed that Adani Mining has instead opted for an aggressive and exclusionary approach as many of the Wangan and Jagalingou people were excluded from representation because they oppose the development of the mine, Adani Mining constantly seeks to undermine them through unjust means, and Adani Mining has recklessly pushed forward with the knowledge that that the Australian Government has the ability to compulsorily acquire land and extinguish Indigenous rights to that land if consent fails to be obtained (Arnautovic 2017, pp. 3-6). When endeavouring to seek buy-in for any project, all parties should be consulted and negotiate in good faith. Adani Mining has failed to show through their actions that they truly were seeking engagement in good faith. For example, Adani Mining offered only 0.2 per cent of the earnings from the planned mine to the Traditional Owners of the land, which is less than half the industry average which usually ranges from 0.35 per cent to 0.75 per cent (Robertson 2017, para. 2-5). Their stakeholder consultation process was also not comprehensive enough to ensure no one faction was excluded from representation, which resulted in the Wangan and Jagalingou people launching legal action against Adani Mining in 2015 (Jagalingou 2015, para. 1). In my perspective, if Adani Mining had consulted and engaged with all stakeholders at the planning stage exhaustively, and resolved to work together to seek out productive solutions for both parties, they would not have been embroiled in a messy legal proceeding which also saw many financiers turn their backs on the project due to the media and publicity surrounding the legal challenge, amongst other factors (Robertson 2017, para. 1-15 & Ryan 2017, para. 1-13). An example where a corporation has effectively consulted and engaged with the Traditional Owners of the land for a project is the Carrapateena project by OZ Minerals. OZ Minerals have developed an ongoing relationship and seek to continually engage with the Traditional Owners of the land, the Kokatha people, with a focus on creating trusting partnerships based on mutual respect, to develop a real partnership for the success of the Carrapateena mine (OZ Minerals, para. 14-15).

By user23395, ago
Project Management

Initiation Procedures, Information, and Activities – Project Management

Learning about Project management is very interesting as many students choose to study  Diploma in Project management or study other project management course view course information on this website both online and on-campus. Below Australian students are reviewing the Initiation Procedures, Information, and Activities of Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project starting with the background and an overview of the project. This project was set up by the other stakeholders. 

Initiation Procedures, Information, and Activities:

The early stage of the project has faced many challenges that have been linked to controversy, funding issues and environmental concerns both on climate and the local flora and fauna. Although these challenges are present, the project is still conducting its initiation phase as per the standard process. Part of the initiation phase is to establish clear and concise feasibility with dedicated funding options to cover the cost of the project until revenue is generated. However, it appears that funding has not been orchestrated very well during the initiation phase, delaying the project for a number of years. Australian banks were negotiating with Adaini early on in the project’s announcement. Due to controversy, environmental concerns, and public outcry, the big four banks have pulled out of funding the project. It was speculated for some time that taxpayer funds were proposed to be used to cover the costs of the project, which has not been proven. Additionally, the Northern Australian Infrastructure Facility (NAIF) for a $1-$5 billion-dollar public loan was denied. After numerous avenues to acquire funding, it has been decided that it will be a self-funded project with state and federal government spending no longer an option. As mentioned before, the Azurian rail network upgrade is still unconfirmed whether money will be supplied from the government. Although the aspect of funding was considered for this project, it appears that relevant stakeholders did not communicate effectively to organise an extremely crucial factor of the initiation phase Another aspect of the initiation phase is to seek approval for all state and federal legislation when planning to build a construction project. This includes relevant licences and management plans of which some are still outstanding. So far this is one of the deciding factors to whether the project will start or not. Currently, the project is undertaking the right steps to satisfy the requirements set forth by legislation, management plans and licencing. However, there are a number of environmental management plans and essential approvals that have not been granted in order to start construction. These approvals include mine camps, telecommunication towers, the airstrip and the quarry and vegetation clearing. Despite the acknowledgment of satisfying the relevant requirements of the construction process, it appears that Adani is becoming complacent and impatient with regards to their responsibilities. The initiation process for the project originally outlined and conducted early on would help the project in satisfying these remaining requirements effectively in order to save money and speed the process along. Communication is a key factor in the initiation phase as it allows all relevant stakeholders involved in a project to be fully aware of their duties and expectations. Additionally, it keeps everyone up to date with any changes or concerns that may arise. Throughout the initiation phase, the project has conducted communication quite well by working with all stakeholders that are either a part of or who will be impacted by the project construction and operation. The stake holders involved include state and federal government, potentially affected landowners, local businesses and residents, community interest groups, industry representatives, surrounding communities, environmental and cultural heritage groups and media. As required, community meetings were conducted in four stages from 2011-2013 regarding face-to-face meetings, workshops and briefings, public information sessions, newsletters and web-based features. This is to allow the public the right to voice and concerns, ask relevant questions and express opinions that may impact them in a negative or positive way. The meetings were completed with feedback through face-to-face, written forms and via contact information on 1800 numbers, emails and reply-paid post. This part of process was prepared and orchestrated professionally and effectively.

By user23395, ago