Introduction to accounting

Where this happens, accounting should show the transaction in accordance with its real substance; that is, on the basis of how the transaction affects the economic situation of the firm. This means that accounting may not reflect the exact legal position concerning that transaction. This most frequently applies to leases and hire purchase transactions. Hire purchase is used by businesses to purchase assets in stages. Take the example of a machine being acquired by hire purchase. Legally, it does not belong to the business until the last installment is paid and an option has been taken up by the business to become the owner of the machine. Effectively, the business has used the machine since it first acquired it in the same way as it would have done had it paid for it in full at that time. The substance over form concept says that the business should show the full value of the machine being bought on hire purchase in its financial statements as though it were legally owned by the business (as an asset), and show the full amount still owing to the supplier of the machine separately as a liability. One aspect that is really important to all accountants is to ensure you are a high level of ethical and principles if you want to practice in Australia. Materiality The accounting concepts already discussed have become accepted in the business world, their assimilation having taken place over many years. However, there is one overriding rule applied to anything that appears in a financial accounting statement – it should be material. That is, it should be of interest to the stakeholders – those people who make use of financial accounting statements. It need not be material to every stakeholder, but it must be material to a stakeholder before it merits inclusion. You also need to ensure you are up to date with all news that is happening in the accounting and bookkeeping industry  Accounting does not serve a useful purpose if the effort of recording a transaction in a certain way is not worthwhile. Thus, if a box of paper clips was bought it would be used up over a period of time, and a cost is incurred every time someone uses a paper clip. It is possible to record this as an expense every time it happens, but obviously the price of a box of paper clips is so little that it is not worth recording it in this fashion. The box of paper clips is not a material item, and therefore would be charged in full as an expense in the period it was bought, irrespective of the fact that it could last for more than one accounting period. In other words, do not waste time in the elaborate recording of trivial items. Accountants distinguish between what they call revenue expenditure (expenditure on items that are not intended to be kept for very long, such as goods for resale and raw materials; or the benefits of which only last a short time, such as labour costs) and capital expenditure (expenditure on non-current assets, i.e. items purchased to be used in the business, such as machines, motor vehicles, and buildings which are not intended to be resold). The definition of revenue expenditure is unhelpful, given that labor is not kept at all but wages are. You can learn about accounting And Bookkeeping Statutory Regulatory information by clicking the following link However, if an item is not material, it will always be treated as revenue expenditure. For example, a stapler would normally be classified as a non-current asset – it is likely to be used for a long time – and, therefore, as an item of capital expenditure. However, in reality, it would be treated as an expense in the period in which it was bought because it is not a material item. Study Accounting can be a creative way to be an accountant or bookkeeper, you can either study a Diploma of account - or a bookkeeping course Businesses operate their own individual rules to determine what is material and what is not. There is no law or regulation in the Australia that defines these rules – the decision as to what is material and what is not is dependent upon judgment. A business may decide that all items under $200 should be treated as expenses in the period in which they were bought, even though they may be used for the following ten years. Another business may fix the limit at $500. Different limits may be set for different types of item.   Other helpful accounting resources include:


By user23395, ago
Project Management

Project management case study – The Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project


Below is an example of questions when you are enrolling in a Diploma of Project management or some type of other Project management course - you can expect that you will be reviewing Project that have been completed in the past and identify how the project could have been improved. Thi section will focus on the initiation and planning stage of the project. If you are looking for other great PM resources have a look at this article. The Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project was introduced by Gautam Adani, who is the founder of the Adani Mining Pty Ltd and is known as the Australian subordinate of the Adani association. The Adani Corporation was established in Ahmedabad, India and is interested in worldwide trading, power generation, coal mining and trading, oil refining, gas distribution, logistics, and management of ports. Adani is offering to reinforce a 27.5 million tons per annum thermal coal mine (Adani Mining, page 11), costing $16.5 billion to take place in the northern Galilee Basin. The project will bring benefits towards the community such as, 1,500 direct jobs, thousands of indirect jobs and many other businesses. It is approximately 300km away from the Queensland coastline and 160 kilometers of Clermont, Central Queensland. The production will begin by gathering coal that is delivered by the new Northern Galilee Basin connected to the Goonyella railway and shipped to Abbot Point Port. The project consists of two crucial elements,
  1. Coal Mine; Greenfield coal including, an open cut and underground mining.
  2. Railway Line; Greenfield Rail Network; supported by rail facilities to export coal via the existing Goonyella railway and delivered to the Port Abbott Point.
During the approval process, the project is required to get an assessment by the Environment Impact Statement (EIS). The EIS is a declaration to determine any environmental impacts made to the area and to remove any activity that will potentially affect the natural, social and economic surroundings. In 2011, Adani has embarked formal meetings with key stakeholders and the community. All materials used within the meetings are recorded to assist in maintaining a flow of information and obtaining feedback. Some of the key issues involved,
  • Climate Change
  • Traffic and Transport
  • Air Quality
  • Hazard and Risk
  • Waste Management
  • Social Impacts etc.
Many people such as the Wangan & Jagalingou family have opposed the project from going ahead. Mentioning the rights for their land and that, we are determined to prevent our land being taken without our consent and to protect our country and sacred places from destruction, (Wanagan & Jagalingou Family Council, 2018). Statements that have approved the Adani corporation are,
  • According to State Development and Public Works Organisation Act 1971 (Qld), the project has been proclaimed to be a ‘significant Project’ requiring a (EIS). (State Development, 2014)
  • According to (DSEWP), The Carmichael Coal Mine and Rail Project has been proclaimed to be a ‘controlled action’ by EIS under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. (State Development, 2014)

By user23395, ago